From 1923: Fudge Squares


When I saw The College Woman’s Cook Book, I knew I had to take a look. The title really called out to me. I mean, I’m a woman, and I’m about to start a PhD program (next week… eek!), so I know a little bit about college. It just makes sense, right? I thought so. I wasn’t sure what to expect: Would this be a book of recipes for women to take to college to cook with friends? Was it convenience recipes for busy students?

Turns out, this is a book that was put together by women who attended college, most at Northwestern University, who then went on to be housewives and test and use recipes themselves. There had to be some kind of old-fashioned, old-timey twist, right? But, in any case, these women did go to college in a time when very few women did.

What I found most shocking as I read more about this subject, though, is that women didn’t actually even go to college in equal numbers to men until 1980… 1980! I feel almost lucky that I was born so recently that that’s a foreign thought to me. Nowadays, no matter your gender, the expectation is that you go to college. How things change!

So, what are we cooking? Fudge squares from The College Woman’s Cook Book published in 1923.


So, since we’re talking about college, I have to admit something: I’m terrified about starting my PhD program next week. It’s the biggest things I’ve ever done, and it’s brand new, so I’m just kind of freaking out a little. But, you know what makes me feel better when I’m out of sorts? Chocolate. And, luckily, these fudge squares fit that bill – warm, sweet, gooey, delicious chocolate.

So, let’s go into the kitchen to make some history!


Here are our ingredients: Butter (I’m using salted), sugar, one egg, unsweetened cocoa powder, baking powder, salt, flour, milk, vanilla, and walnuts.


Step 1: Melt the butter and then pour it into a mixing bowl that’s you’ve measured the sugar into.


Step 2: Cream the butter and the sugar together with an electric mixer (technology!) until they mix together enough that they look like snow.


Step 3: Add in the egg, and beat it with the mixer.


Step 4: Add in the cocoa powder, baking powder, and salt.


Step 5: Add in the milk. At this point, using an electric mixer got too messy, so I just used a rubber spatula the rest of the way!


Step 6: Then, add in the flour!


Step 7: Add in the vanilla and stir everything together. You should have a nice, rich batter by now. And, here’s where you’d add in the walnuts if you aren’t me. I forgot. They were sitting right in front of me on the counter, and I completely forgot to put them in. I didn’t even realize until the fudge squares were nearly done baking. So, sorry about that. This is one of the many reasons I’m a historian, not a cook. Optional walnuts for all!


Step 8: Butter an 8×8″ baking dish. You can see that I always use foil. It’s inexpensive, and it makes cleanup a breeze! Once your dish is buttered, pour in the batter and spread it out so it’s flat.


Step 9: Bake the fudge squares in a 350 degree oven for 30-35 minutes, or a knife or toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean. Then, let them cool nearly completely before cutting them and devouring them!


Final step: Go ahead, devour them. We did. My husband and I ate nearly the whole tray in one sitting, and then I went back and polished off the rest later. I’m nervous about starting school, so it was okay for me to do that. And, don’t you tell me any differently!

I’m doing this for me, though. Learning, reading, and writing have always been my passions, and now I’ll be doing those every single day on my way to publishing books or being a professor at a university. The process will be long and hard, but it will be worth it through and through.

As I’m thinking about it, I’m also doing this for the women I read about through history each and every day. Take the women in The College Woman’s Cook Book, for example. They went to college, but the expectation for them afterward was to stay at home and care for a family. And, they were in an incredibly small minority of women who went to college, at all! Education wasn’t “wasted” on most women long ago. But, look at us now. Look at me now. Oh boy… deep breath… I can do this!

From 1923: Fudge Squares

  • Servings: Makes one 8x8 pan
  • Difficulty: Easy
  • Print


  • 3 Tbs. salted butter, melted
  • 1 cup sugar
  • 1 egg
  • 2 Tbs. unsweetened cocoa powder
  • 1 tsp. baking powder
  • 1/4 tsp. salt
  • 1/3 cup milk
  • 1 cup flour
  • 1 tsp. vanilla
  • 1/2 cup walnuts, optional


  1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Butter an 8×8″ square baking dish.
  2. In a mixing bowl, cream the melted butter and the sugar. Then, add the egg and beat everything together.
  3. Mix in the cocoa powder, baking powder, and salt. Then, mix in the milk.
  4. Stir in the flour until a smooth batter forms. Then, add in the vanilla and the optional walnuts.
  5. Pour the batter into the prepared baking dish, and bake for 30-35 minutes, or until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean.
  6. Cool before cutting into squares.


2 thoughts on “From 1923: Fudge Squares

  1. Yum! Who doesn’t love anything chocolate. These look delicious and the history behind it is fascinating and to many never thought about, until now! I love the blog, it ties my love of recipes with my NOT so great love if history , and now I find history fascinating. I know you will do great things in college working toward your Phd. Best of luck Heather!! 😊


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